According to the abstract, in all participant groups, singing was associated with significant reductions in negative affect and increases in positive affect, plus significant increases in cytokines (substances involved in immune defenses), and reductions in cortisol levels. This study provides preliminary evidence that singing improves mood state and modulates components of the immune system. One of the researchers, Ian Lewis, has been quoted as saying: We’ve long heard anecdotal evidence that singing in a choir makes people feel good, but this is the first time it’s been demonstrated that the immune system can be affected by singing. ‘But there is no choir where I live,’ you say. How about a virtual choir? Get a recording of your favorite choir singing music you love and sing along. Remember, virtual rehearsal triggers the brain in much the same way as does actual rehearsal. If you can do both, so much the better!