Wednesday, October 18, 2017

Exercise & Depression, 3

Dr Samuel Harvey, lead author for the largest survey of its kind for any link between exercise and depression, said, “We’ve known for some time that exercise has a role to play in treating symptoms of depression, but this is the first time we have been able to quantify the preventative potential of physical activity in terms of reducing future levels of depression. These findings are exciting because they show that even relatively small amounts of exercise, from a minimum of one hour per week, has the potential to deliver significant protection against depression. Dr. Harvey found it fascinating that the first hour of exercise turned out to be crucial. Most of the mental health benefits of exercise were realized within the first hour of exercise undertaken each week. The researchers concluded that just one hour of exercise a week reduced the chances of developing depression by a massive 44%.

Tuesday, October 17, 2017

Exercise & Depression, 2

In the largest survey of its kind, researchers monitored 33,908 “healthy” Norwegians for more than 11 years. The cohort of adults were selected on the basis of having no symptoms of common mental disorder or limiting physical health conditions. Validated measures of exercise, depression, anxiety, and a range of potential confounding and mediating factors were collected. The practice of regular leisure-time exercise was associated with a reduced incidence of future depression but not of anxiety. The majority of this protective effect occurred at low levels of exercise and was observed regardless of intensity. After adjustment for confounders, the population attributable fraction suggests that, assuming the relationship is causal, researchers estimated that 12% of future cases of depression could have been prevented by just one hour of exercise per week. 

Monday, October 16, 2017

Exercise & Depression

Dr. Samuel Harvey is the lead author of a study that evaluated the impact of exercise on depression and anxiety. The results were reported this month on line. According to the study abstract, the purpose of this study was to address:

1)   whether exercise provides protection against new-onset depression and anxiety

2) if so, the intensity and amount of exercise required to gain protection

3) The mechanisms that underlie any association between exercise, depression, and anxiety.


In the largest survey of its kind, the anxiety and depression levels of 33,908 Norwegians were monitored for more than 11 years.

Friday, October 13, 2017

Lectins, 2

Lectins may be harmful, at least for some people, if consumed in excess in uncooked or improperly-cooked forms. Some think that the negative effects of lectins are due to gastrointestinal distress through interaction of the lectins with cells in the intestines. Symptoms of toxicity may include diarrhea, nausea, bloating, and vomiting. Some have suggested that there are ways to reduce the toxicity of lectins. For example: soaking legumes and beans for a couple of hours in water with a little added lemon juice and then cooking them in a pressure cooker. Thinking back to my childhood, I recall that my mother always cooked legumes and beans in a pressure cooker. I think I’ll get one and try doing this myself. Can’t hurt!

Thursday, October 12, 2017

Lectins

Lectin is the name for a type of protein that is concentrated more in some foods than others. Foods with the highest lectin activity include: grains (especially wheat), legumes (especially soy), some nuts, dairy, and nightshades (e.g. eggplant, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, etc.). The frequent consumption of large amounts of lectins has been shown potentially to damage the lining of the digestive system. An article published in April of 2017 suggests that lectins can cause disease. Some lectins can actually move through the intestinal wall and even deposit themselves in distant organs. If you are interested more information can be found at this link.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1115436/

Wednesday, October 11, 2017

Rat Leptin Studies

Studies with rats have shown that Leptin resistance (in combination with insulin resistance and weight gain) is seen in rats after they are given unlimited access to palatable, energy-dense foods. This effect can be reversed when the rats are again fed a better diet and are not given unlimited access to the food. This suggests the value of human beings moving toward a balanced intake of foods that are unrefined along with appropriate portion control. Interestingly, this approach is what is mirrored in the Longevity Lifestyle Matters program. Studies in 2008 (led by Shapiro) and in 2010 (led by Oswal) suggest that that the main role of leptin is to act as a starvation signal when levels are low and to help maintain fat stores for survival, rather than a satiety signal to prevent overeating. Leptin levels signal when an animal has enough stored energy to spend it in pursuits besides acquiring food.

Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Leptin Sensitivity

In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin can occur. The consequences of this result in the person’s inability to detect satiety, even though there may be high energy stores. No surprise, any decline in the level of circulating leptin impacts brain activity in areas that involve the cognitive and/or emotional control of appetite. In 1996 a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine [334 (5): 292–5] reported that while leptin typically reduces appetite as a circulating signal, obese individuals generally exhibit a higher circulating concentration of leptin than normal weight individuals This is likely due to their higher percentage of body fat. In addition, they also ten to show leptin resistance similar to the insulin resistance seen in people with type 2 diabetes. However, the elevated levels of leptin fail to control hunger or modulate their weight.