The results of a new study led by Lisa A. Martin, PhD, was published in JAMA Psychiatry. Researchers analyzed data from a national mental health survey involving 3,310 women and 2,382 men. Researchers also looked for alternative symptoms. They wanted to observe whether the sex differences in the incidence of depression would change when alternative symptoms were considered alongside more conventional ones (e.g., men reported higher rates of anger attacks/aggression, substance abuse, and risk taking compared with women). Results showed that when both traditional and alternative symptoms were accounted for, men and women met the criteria for depression in equal measures, with 30.6% of men and 33.3% of the women in the study classified as depressed. Interestingly, their findings showed that male-type symptoms of depression are also common in women. As a result, asking both men and women questions about irritability, anger, and substance abuse is equally important when identifying depression.