Based on DNA testing, my patrilineal ancestry reportedly goes back to one African male known as “Y-Chromosomal Adam.” Two initial descendants from this male were the Haplogroup A and the Haplogroup BR. Other mutations occurred that were split into Haplogroup F, Haplogroup P, and eventually Haplogroup R (distinguishable by its M207 mutation). And the Y-chromosome results are aligned with a section of this group known as Haplogroup R1b, reportedly related to a man in Iberia (modern day Spain) now known as ‘the Patriarch, who carried the genetic marker that designates the Haplogroup R1b. My cousin Tim is seeing what he can find about my father’s generational line, because it appears they came to Canada from either Ireland (100% of the male population in Western Ireland belongs to Haplogroup R1b) or from England (70% of the male population in southern Britain belongs to Haplogroup R1b). Anyway, if we could go back far enough, it appears that all of us are related to all of us. Interesting concept, especially in light of all the existing conflicts, locally and globally.