The Dunning-Kruger effect or syndrome can be described as a cognitive bias. David Dunning and Justin Kruger of Cornell University experimentally observed this effect in 1999. Wikipedia has pointed out that although the Dunning–Kruger effect was formulated in 1999, the cognitive bias of illusory superiority has been referred to in literature throughout history. For example, Confucius (551–479 BC) reportedly said, “Real knowledge is to know the extent of one’s ignorance.” And William Shakespeare (1564–1616) wrote in As You Like It, “The fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool.” The Dunning-Kruger Syndrome is said to occur when relatively unskilled or incompetent individuals suffer from illusory superiority. They mistakenly assess their ability to be much higher than is accurate. More tomorrow.