Researchers initially expected that there were be a great many emotional facial expressions--far more than they actually identified. The results of the study showed, however, 35 separate facial expression that convey emotions across all cultures studied, and only 8 that are used in almost all of the cultures. Happiness or joy turned out to be the most complex or the most varied of all the core emotions—meaning it can be expressed in 17 different ways. The type of happiness is conveyed and expressed by altering the size of one’s smile and the crinkles around one’s eyes. Co-author Martinez reportedly said, “This was delightful to discover because it speaks to the complex nature of happiness.” Anger can be expressed facially in five different ways as can sadness. Fear is expressed in three different ways, while there is only one facial expression needed to express disgust (which may not be a core emotion but an emotional motivator, adding ‘energy’ to a core emotions).