According to Kurzweil News, stroke is the third largest cause of death and the single largest cause of adult disability in the developed world. A trial is being conducted at the Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Greater Glasgow and Clyde NHS Board, using neural stem cell treatment in ischemic stroke patients. Phase one results are encouraging in that no cell-related or immuinological adverse affects have been identified. The PISCES study, as has come to be known, is the world’s first fully-regulated clinical trial of a neural stem cell therapy for disabled stroke patients. Meanwhile, plans are proceeding for a Phase II trial which will examine the efficacy of stem cell treatment in stroke patients and an application is expected to be submitted to the UK regulatory authorities in early July. If approved, the Phase II trial is scheduled to commence later this year. It will be a controlled multi-center trial involving around 20 patients initially, all of whom will have suffered a stroke within a few weeks. This will be interesting to follow.